Author ORCID Identifier





To address faking issues associated with Likert-type personality measures, multidimensional forced-choice (MFC) measures have recently come to light as important components of personnel assessment systems. Despite various efforts to investigate the fake resistance of MFC measures, previous research has mainly focused on the scale mean differences between honest and faking conditions. Given the recent psychometric advancements in MFC measures (e.g., Brown & Maydeu-Olivares, 2011; Stark et al., 2005; Lee et al., 2019; Joo et al., 2019), there is a need to investigate the fake resistance of MFC measures through a new methodological lens. This research investigates the fake resistance of MFC measures through recently proposed differential item functioning (DIF) and differential test functioning (DTF) methodologies for MFC measures (Lee, Joo, & Stark, 2020). Overall, our results show that MFC measures are more fake resistant than Likert-type measures at the item and test levels. However, MFC measures may still be susceptible to faking if MFC measures include many mixed blocks consisting of positively and negatively keyed statements within a block. It may be necessary for future research to find an optimal strategy to design mixed blocks in the MFC measures to satisfy the goals of validity and scoring accuracy. Practical implications and limitations are discussed in the paper.

Lee_1142_Supplemental Materials.docx (30 kB)
Supplemental Materials

Corresponding Author Information

Philseok Lee


George Mason University, 4400 University Dr., Fairfax, VA 22030



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