Experiences of bias and discrimination remain pernicious obstacles for many individuals. Both micro- and macro-level interventions are necessary to eliminate and/or mitigate these negative experiences. This review focuses on micro-level interventions, specifically, five types of compensatory strategies that targets can use to eliminate and/or mitigate the bias and discrimination they experience. In this manuscript, we synthesize the research on humor, avoidance, affiliation, enhancement, and social category label switching strategies; describe identities with which the strategies could be used; and highlight strengths and weaknesses of each of the strategies. Finally, we propose actionable directions for future research for each of the compensatory strategies.

Corresponding Author Information

Oscar Holmes IV


227 Penn Street Camden, NJ 08102



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