Mullin's Escalator Model was used to illustrate the dominant contribution of repeat participants to public recreation attendance. The "20-60" rule was substantiated. Evidence suggests that it is both more effective and less expensive to focus on building a loyal following of repeat participants than to concentrate on attracting only new customers. Substantial potential exists for recreation managers to increase attendance by simply keeping and holding on to their existing users.
Howard, Dennis R. and Edginton, Christopher R.
"Consumer Retention: The Key to Building Participant Volume,"
Visions in Leisure and Business: Vol. 6
, Article 5.
Available at: https://scholarworks.bgsu.edu/visions/vol6/iss2/5