efficacy, equity, linguistic diversity, professional development, teacher certification, teacher preparation


In this mixed methods study, we examine the role of self-efficacy in relationship to inservice teachers’ capacities to serve English learners (ELs) based on their years of teaching experience, professional development preparation and English as a Second Language (ESL) licensure. Through the use of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews, findings demonstrate that teachers with high levels of preparation and related English as a second language (ESL) licensure have the highest levels of efficacy and are able to address the needs of ELs within their curriculum selection, instructional differentiation and interpretation of classroom-based assessments. In contrast, those that only have episodic ESL professional development show lower levels of self-efficacy. These findings are of immediate value as many US states have limited to no requirements of ESL licensure for practicing ESL teachers and no expectation of general education preparation, producing an ineffective and under qualified teacher pool for ELs.