Associations between ethnic socialization and a sense of personal efficacy were explored among African- American, Hispanic, and Caucasian adolescents. We found that those who reported greater intimacy with their mothers were more likely to perceive them as sources of race-related socialization messages. Consisting of primarily African-American and Latino youths, members of this group were encouraged by their mothers to demonstrate greater racial and ethnic pride. In contrast, Caucasian youths were more likely to see their mothers as purveyors of tolerance and cooperation between diverse populations. A separate analysis involving the African-American subset revealed that adolescents who received messages imparting strong cultural and racial pride were related to reporting a greater sense of personal efficacy.
Pernice-Duca, Francesca and Owens, Delila
"Racial/Ethnic Socialization Messages, Social Support, and Personal Efficacy among Adolescents,"
Mid-Western Educational Researcher: Vol. 23:
4, Article 7.
Available at: https://scholarworks.bgsu.edu/mwer/vol23/iss4/7