Purpose: Leadership and management skills both are needed by athletic trainers. However, most professional education emphasizes management-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to differentiate between leadership and management behaviors taught in athletic training programs and explore the pedagogical strategies used in teaching those behaviors. Method: A cross-sectional exploratory design was used to survey Athletic Training Program Directors (PDs). The Leadership and Management Education Assessment Instrument (LMEAI) was developed for this investigation. The LMEAI collected standard demographic characteristics of respondents and used a 5-point Likert scale (1 = extremely important to 5 = not at all important) to assess importance of different leadership and management behaviors as well as pedagogical strategies used to teach those important behaviors. Results: Cronbach coefficient �� for the LMEAI was α = 0.88, item analysis ranged from α = 0.868 to 0.883, indicating strong internal consistency/reliability. Twenty percent (20%) of PDs did not report teaching any leadership skills. Kruskal-Wallis tests indicated no differences in pedagogical strategies according to age or gender. Mann-Whitney U tests identified differences in ethnicity when teaching “cultural competency” (p=.041). Differences were also seen between degree levels when teaching “verbal communication” (p=.004), “communication” (p=0.23), and conflict management (p=.003) Lecture was the main method of instruction reported for didactic education, while self-reflection was reported as most often used for clinical education. Conclusions: Similarities were seen in pedagogical strategies used when instructing leadership and management for both didactic and clinical education, however, educators should consider integration of content across the curriculum with separate methods for instructing leadership and management, respectively. Educators should consider diverse pedagogical techniques other than lecture to deliver leadership related content.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.