Curriculum and Instruction | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Exercise Physiology | Exercise Science | Health and Physical Education | Kinesiology | Leisure Studies | Other Rehabilitation and Therapy | Public Health | Sports Sciences | Sports Studies


The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes and self-efficacy of swimming coaches regarding the inclusion of swimmers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The sample consisted of 150 Greek swimming coaches with an average age of 29.58 years. Each participant completed the Swimming Coaches Attitudes towards Inclusion Questionnaire for perceptions assessment and the Biddle and Goudas (1997) self-efficacy questionnaire. The statistical analysis used SPSS 27 to calculate Cronbach’s alpha, Pearson product-moment correlations, independent t-tests, and ANOVA. The findings of the study showed that the swimming coaches expressed positive attitudes and a high percentage of perceived self-efficacy towards the inclusion of athletes with ASD in the general swimming team. Attitudes were not associated with self-efficacy. Training in adapted physical education and the geographical distribution seemed to influence attitudes whereas gender and coaching experience influenced self-efficacy. Overall, swimming coaches expressed positive attitudes towards the inclusion of swimmers with ASD in their general team and considered their teaching effective.