Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Exercise Physiology | Exercise Science | Health and Physical Education | Kinesiology | Leisure Studies | Other Rehabilitation and Therapy | Outdoor Education | Sports Sciences | Sports Studies


Surfboard paddling is an essential activity when surfing. Research investigating surfboard paddling, especially as it pertains to neuromechanical control and techniques used, is limited. Previous research made use of swim ergometers to examine surfboard paddling demands. The validity of using swim ergometers in surfboard paddling research and training deserves further analysis. To establish ecologically valid findings, researchers have begun to use swim flumes and still-water paddling environments to investigate paddling efficiency and technique. This emerging body of research has reported that muscle activation patterns, intensities, and timings differ as surfers move through different paddle stroke phases. A deeper understanding of paddling's neuromechanical control may help enhance the understanding of how to improve paddle performance and perhaps reduce injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to identify the gaps in the existing literature to help identify future research directions in relation to surfboard paddling techniques and neuromechanical control.