This analysis indicated that from variables theorized to influence score change in NAEP reading scores from 1994-1998, two were the most consistent with the pattern of correlations found in the data. Together, both median household income (AVGINC) and the percentage of students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch (FRELCH) had fairly large impacts on reading score change. Additionally, the rate of change in reading scores varied across states. AVGINC had constant growth over time, while FRELCH’s development over time was quite slow in both the initial model and an alternative model.
Walker, David A. and Mohammed, Shereeza F.
"A Resource Inputs Model Examining NAEP Reading Score Change from 1994-1998: State Median Household Income and Free and Reduced-Price Lunch Percentages Matter,"
Mid-Western Educational Researcher: Vol. 18:
4, Article 2.
Available at: https://scholarworks.bgsu.edu/mwer/vol18/iss4/2