Swimming and water safety skills are important life skills, particularly in Australia, where aquatic activities are regularly enjoyed. Little research has been undertaken exploring children’s swimming and water safety skills, what level they can achieve, and what factors impact their ability to learn these skills. This study explores children aged 5-12 years who participated in the Australian Capital Territory Primary Schools Swim and Survive Program, 2009-2011. Children who were more likely to achieve higher levels were older, were female, attended private school, swam at least once a fortnight, had a swimming pool at home, or visited a public swimming pool. Those who were less likely were Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, had a negative experience, and swam less than once a fortnight.