Creating awareness about primary and secondary interventions that can be used in situations involving drowning is an important prevention strategy. Consistent among reports from almost all countries is that drowning injury steals life from young children, followed by youth, and then young adults. As a result of the on-going need to reduce these types of statistics, the American Red Cross Scientific Advisory Council – Aquatic Sub Council established two intervention programs to address both sides of drowning events. Content of this manuscript is based on work by members of the Aquatic Sub Council. It focuses on describing and providing scientific rationale for two educational programs designed to approach the issue of drowning from both a primary and secondary intervention perspective. Presented are the Circle of Drowning Prevention and the Chain of Drowning Survival along with the thought processes and foundational research that brought them into existence. Both intervention programs are currently being used in educational materials and marketing efforts within American Red Cross water safety materials.
Ramos, William; Beale, Angela; Chambers, Peter; Dalke, Shelley; Fielding, Roy; Kublick, Louise; Langendorfer, Stephen; Lees, Terri; Quan, Linda; and Wernicki, Peter
"Primary and Secondary Drowning Interventions: The American Red Cross Circle of Drowning Prevention and Chain of Drowning Survival,"
International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education: Vol. 9:
1, Article 8.
Available at: https://scholarworks.bgsu.edu/ijare/vol9/iss1/8