When the movement patterns of persons with permanent physical disabilities are observed from underwater, it is apparent that they have adapted unique variations in their swimming strokes to compensate for existing anatomic and neuromuscular deficits. Using underwater videotaping and subsequent analysis it is now possible to both identify and evaluate the movement mechanics of these swimmers. The purpose of this paper is to describe how motion analysis technology can be used in biomechanical research to examine the stroke mechanics of swimmers with permanent physical disabilities. In addition, we will identify the unique movement patterns of these swimmers, and, when applicable, discuss the limitations to their swimming efficiency.