African American Studies | Applied Behavior Analysis | Educational Psychology | Ethnic Studies | Health and Physical Education | Leisure Studies | Race, Ethnicity and Post-Colonial Studies | Social Psychology and Interaction | Sports Studies | Theory and Philosophy


This research note introduces the Initial Participation Model, which theorizes continued participation in a activity or group before individuals make commitment is a function of: enjoyment, feeling of inclusion, and/or involvement opportunities. The specific focus of this research is investigating how deficiency in enjoyment, feeling of inclusion, and involvement opportunities may discourage continuing participation in competitive swimming by underrepresented populations such as African American, Black, Hispanic, Latino, Native American, Pacific Islander and low-socioeconomic communities. Details explain how initial participation differs from other sport stages by emphasizing participation; relating to program instead of sport; and resetting each time an individual joins a new activity or group. Two examples are offered illustrating how the model may be used for identifying points of intervention that stimulate continued initial participation. Also included are specific factors constructing the model and future testing plans for validation.