Masters of Education in Human Movement, Sport, and Leisure Studies Graduate Projects


Aliyah Gustafson


Track and field is a sport that is comprised of running events and field events. Running events include sprints, middle- and long-distances, and hurdles. Field events are comprised of throwing and jumping events (e.g., shot put, discus, javelin, and high-jump). Track and field athletes have a wide range of body types, energy system demands, and specific skills/techniques during performance of these varied events. The purposes of this study were to evaluate functional movements and subjective well-being (positive affect and satisfaction with life) of female track and field athletes at Bowling Green State University prior to and following the 7-week indoor track and field season. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) (Cook, 2010) includes seven tests designed to identify muscle and movement imbalances, and compensatory motions (Frost, Beach, Callaghan & McGill, 2012). The Y-Balance Test (YBT) is a measure of dynamic balance and imbalance in the lower extremities. Subjective well-being can be evaluated using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES-T), a Trait measure of overall feelings of enjoyment, (Kendzierski & DeCarlo, 1991) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) (Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985). Twenty-four female college track and field athletes (Mean ± S.D. Age: 19.9 ± 1.3 yrs) were recruited. Quantitative data were collected from each athlete prior to the beginning and at the conclusion of the indoor season and included administration of the FMS, YBT, PACES-T, and SWLS. The participants were grouped by their track and field events: throwers; sprinters, hurdlers, and jumpers (SHJ); and distance runners. Two-way, mixed model ANOVAs were calculated to determine the effects of Group (3) and Time (2; pre- and post-season) on functional movement and subjective well-being scores. Pearson correlations were utilized to identify any relationships between scores from the FMS, YBT right and left leg, PACES-T, and SWLS both for pre- and post-season. There was a significant difference between pre- and post-season FMS scores (N=21; n=3 athletes were injured and did not complete post-testing). FMS scores significantly improved as the 7-wk season of seven meets was completed (Mean ± S.D. FMS: Pre-season, 14.8 ± 2.5 Post-season, 15.6 ± 2.2; p = .03). The YBT data revealed that imbalances existed between the right and left lower extremities. The posteromedial distance (PMD) was significantly different between the right and left legs (Mean ± S.D. PMD reach distance: Right, 88.9 ± 9.2; Left, 90.9 ± 9.7 cm). The relationships were significant at pre-season for FMS score and PACES-T (r =.404, p < .05), and at the post-season for both left and right YBT scores and the PACES-T (right, r = .451, p < .05 and left, r = .400, p < .05). In addition, there were significant correlations for PACES-T with SWLS (Pre-season, r = .507, p < .01; Post-season, r = .596, p < .01). Most indoor track and field athletes had muscle or movement imbalances bilaterally; however, most athletes improved their FMS scores pre- to post-season. In addition to the physical components, the more indoor track and field athletes enjoyed physical activity, the more likely they were to be satisfied overall with their life.


Dr. Lynn Darby

Second Reader

Dr. Bonnie Berger