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Abstract

Motivation is a universal internal force that propels people to complete tasks. Without motivation, an individual will not complete a task despite any external reward (Ngyuen, 2008). People contain both extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is caused by an outside force such as a deadline, while intrinsic motivation is the driving force to expand one’s horizons and increase knowledge on a topic (Singh, 2011). Motivation to complete a task can also be influenced by the goals presented by an educator or authority figure. Performance-based goals assess an individual’s ability to complete a task and align with extrinsic motivation; learning-based goals assess how an individual can apply previous knowledge through using problem-solving strategies to solve complex tasks and can be aligned with intrinsic motivation. (Heyman & Dweck, 1992). Individuals can become more defeated and less intrinsically motivated when faced with only performance-based or learning-based goals. A student’s perception of their competence and efficacy when completing an assignment also contributes to the development of extrinsic or intrinsic motivation. While literary research emphasizes the importance of academic goals and student motivation, there is little commentary focusing on the structure of scholarly assignments and their effects on academic goals, student confidence, and motivation.

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