Caregiver Well-Being and Burden: Variations by Race/Ethnicity and Care Recipient Nativity Status
Background and Objectives: Despite growing diversity among the aging population and extensive previous research on racial/ethnic minority caregivers, little research has been conducted on the potentially unique experiences and outcomes of informal caregivers of foreign-born care recipients. Using nationally representative data and the Stress Process Model, the current study examined the differences in caregiver outcomes (care burden, psychological well-being, and self-rated health) by care recipient nativity status (U.S.-born vs. foreign-born) and the extent to which caregiver outcomes vary by care recipient nativity status and caregiver race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and Others).
Research Design and Methods: The current study used Round 5 of the National Health and Aging Trends Study and the National Study of Caregiving (N = 1,436). We conducted ordinary least squares regression to analyze the differences in caregiver’s outcomes by care recipient nativity status and caregiver race/ethnicity and to investigate the impacts of the inclusion of caregiving factors (background factors, primary stressors, secondary stressors, and resources).
Results: Regression analyses showed that only care burden significantly varied by care recipient nativity status after controlling for covariates. Caregivers of foreign-born care recipients reported a higher burden. However, when interactions of care recipient nativity status × caregiver race/ethnicity were introduced, non-Hispanic black and Hispanic caregivers of foreign-born care recipients were more likely to report better psychological well-being and self-rated health compared to their counterparts. Across caregiver groups, better caregiver–care recipient relationship quality and less caregiver chronic conditions were associated with less burden and better caregiver psychological well-being and self-rated health.
Discussion and Implications: Care recipient nativity status and caregiver race/ethnicity may have complex effects on caregiving experiences. Given the observed significant interaction effects for caregiver psychological well-being and self-rated health, cultural factors may affect the extent to which these caregivers appraise their caregiving. Future research should delve into the appropriate ways to assess care stress as well as resilience among each caregiver group. Our results indicate the need for research, education, and practice that assess cultural and within-group differences among caregivers and inform needed changes to structural barriers.
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Moon, Heehyul E.; Haley, William E.; Rote, Sunshine M.; and Sears, Jeanelle S., "Caregiver Well-Being and Burden: Variations by Race/Ethnicity and Care Recipient Nativity Status" (2020). Social Work Faculty Publications. 1.
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