Psychology Ph.D. Dissertations


Job Demands, Control, and Support: Looking at Engagement

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)



First Advisor

Steve Jex (Committee Chair)

Second Advisor

Milton Hakel (Committee Member)

Third Advisor

Casey Cromwell (Committee Member)

Fourth Advisor

Mary Murray (Committee Member)


A cross sectional study of the correlates of employee engagement is reported. The applicability of the Demands Control Support (JDCS) model to understanding employeeengagement is tested using survey responses from employees working in the United States of America and internationally. Results support Karasek's (1989) interpretation of the JDC(S) model, suggesting additive, linear relationships between self reported perceptions of demands, control, and support incrementally explained variance in self reported employee engagement. Interestingly, the direction of relationships between study variables was the same in all cultures studied, however, the strength of the relationships varied between cultures. Results of the exploratory factor analysis on these cultures suggest the distinction between demands, control, and support may vary between cultures. Results highlight the importance of considering employee perceptions of job demands, job control, and job support to understanding employee engagement. Also, the possibility of cultural values which may influence the importance of work characteristics is discussed.