Degussa P-25 TiO2 bearing surface-anchored Pt(dcbpy)Cl-2 [dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine] prepared with systematically varied surface coverage produced Pt-0 nanoparticles under bandgap illumination in the presence of methanol hole scavengers. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the presence of elemental platinum in the newly formed nanoparticles during scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) eleriments. According to the statistical analysis of numerous STEM images, the Pt-0 nanoclusters were distributed in a segregated manner throughout the titania surface, ranging in size from 1 to 3 nm in diameter. The final achieved nanoparticle size and net hydrogen production were determined as a function of the Pt(dcbpy)Cl-2 surface coverage as well as other systematically varied experimental parameters. The hybrid Pt/TiO2 nanomaterials obtained upon complete decomposition of the Pt(dcbpy)Cl-2 precursor displayed higher photocatalytic activity (300 mu mol/h) for hydrogen evolution in aqueous suspensions when compared with platinized TiO2 derived from H2PtCl6 precursors (130 mu mol/h), as ascertained through gas chromatographic analysis of the photoreactor headspace under identical experimental conditions. The conclusion that H-2 was evolved from Pt-0 sites rather than from molecular Pt(dcbpy)Cl-2 entities was independently supported by Hg and CO poisoning experiments. The formation of small Pt nanopartides (1.5 nm in diameter) prevail at low surface coverage of Pt(dcbpy)Cl-2 on TiO2 (0.5 to 2% by mass) that exhibit enhanced turnover frequencies with respect to all other materials investigated, induding those produced from the in situ photochemical reduction of H2PtCl6 center dot Pt-II precursor absorption in the ultraviolet region appeared to be partially responsible for attenuation of the H-2 evolution rate at higher Pt(dcbpy)Cl-2 surface coverage. The nanoparticle size and hydrogen evolution characteristics of the surface-anchored materials generated through photodeposition were directly compared with those derived from chemical reduction using NaBH4. Finally, Degussa P-25 thin films deposited on FTO substrates enabled electrochemically induced (-1.0 V vs Ag/AgCl, pH 7.0, phosphate buffer) electron trapping (TiO2(e(-))) throughout the titania. After removal of the applied bias and the anaerobic introduction of Pt(dcbpy)Cl-2, the accumulated electrons reduce this molecular species to Pt-0 nanoparticles on the titania electrode surface, as confirmed by TEM measurements, with the concomitant production of H-2 gas. The combined experiments illustrate that TiO2(e(-)) generated with bandgap excitation or via electrochemical bias affords the reduction of Pt(dcbpy)Cl-2 to Pt-0 nanoparticles that in turn are responsible for heterogeneous hydrogen gas evolution.
Khnayzer, Rony S.; Thompson, Lucas B.; Zamkov, Mikhail; Ardo, Shane; Meyer, Gerald J.; Murphy, Catherine J.; and Castellano, Felix N., "Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production at Titania-Supported Pt Nanoclusters that are Derived from Surface-Anchored Molecular Precursors" (2012). Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications. 5.
Journal Of Physical Chemistry C