Photochemical Sciences Ph.D. Dissertations


Study of Defects and Doping in β-Ga2O3

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


Photochemical Sciences

First Advisor

Farida Selim (Advisor)

Second Advisor

Amelia Carr (Other)

Third Advisor

Alexander Tarnovsky (Committee Member)

Fourth Advisor

Alexey Zayak (Committee Member)


Transparent Semiconducting oxides (TSO) belong to a special group of wide bandgap oxide materials that have high optical transmittance and high conductivity at the same time. Wide bandgap semiconductors are extremely important for their use in numerous electronic/ optoelectronic devices including MOSFETs, Photo diodes, solar cell, LED, Laser diode, sensors, etc. Recently, wide bandgap oxide materials, especially Ga2O3 have attracted a great deal of attention from the scientific community. β-Ga2O3 is the most stable polymorphs of Ga2O3 with an ultra-wide bandgap of 4.9 eV, high breakdown voltage, and high Baliga’s Figure of Merit (BFM) that make it an ideal candidate for the next generation high power devices. A comprehensive study of material properties of β-Ga2O3 is needed to fabricate high-performance devices. Unfortunately, our understanding of β-Ga2O3 as a semiconductor material is not comprehensive. Point defects (e.g., Cation or anion vacancies, interstitials, etc.) that significantly affect the electrical and optical properties of this material are not yet fully understood. Proper understanding, characterizing and modification of defects can lead to its application in semiconductor-based devices. Moreover, finding suitable donors and acceptors for β-Ga2O3 to tune its electrical conductivity is crucial for its use in electronic devices. In this thesis, different aspects of β-Ga2O3 are addressed as a semiconductor material. We have studied optical, electrical, and structural properties of β-Ga2O3 single crystals and epitaxial thin films grown by several techniques. Major point defects in β-Ga2O3 were investigated using several novel techniques. We have identified and characterized major electronic traps and investigated their effects on the optical, structural, and electrical properties of β-Ga2O3. We discovered an innovative way to dope β-Ga2O3 providing high free carrier density and good mobility while maintaining low defect concentration. A novel spectrometer was built to expand our understanding of electronic traps in β-Ga2O3. Indium gallium oxide ternary epitaxial thin films alloy of Ga2O3 were grown using the MOCVD technique and characterized in detail. These films exhibit highly tunable energy bandgap that could be used in devices where bandgap match is crucial. The alloys also show tunable electrical conductivity. The effects of common defects on the film properties were investigated.