The Use of Self Survey Instrument (UoS-SI): An Exploratory Factor Analysis and Reliability Analysis

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Organization Development & Change (D.O.D.C.)


Organization Development

First Advisor

Steven Cady (Committee Chair)

Second Advisor

Jari Willing (Other)

Third Advisor

David Jamieson (Committee Member)

Fourth Advisor

Colleen Boff (Committee Member)


The purpose of this dissertation was twofold; first to advance the Use of Self (UoS) construct by examining the dimensions of UoS, then to develop an instrument for people to self-assess how they view and use themselves in the workplace. The validity and reliability of the Use of Self Survey Instrument (UoS-SI) were analyzed using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and reliability analysis. A preliminary EFA was conducted using principal component analysis with a Promax rotation method which supported the three factor-structure of the instrument. The three dimensions of Self-Awareness, Situational Awareness, and Intentional Action were comprised of 55 initial items that were reduced to 33 (eleven per factor) after the items that did not load, cross-loaded, or were substantially the same as another item that loaded higher were removed. The final three-factor structure was run using PCA as the extraction method with a Promax rotation method with the remaining 33 items. The resulting structure loaded cleanly with the three factors of Self-Awareness, Situational Awareness, and Intentional Action, explaining 53.09% of the variance in the relationship patterns of the items and the factors correlating at r > .51. This supports the assertion that the three factors are part of the larger UoS construct, while also being unique and highly reliable with Cronbach alphas a >.90. This also supports that the UoS-SI is a valid and reliable instrument. This research is important because it further extends the empirical evidence on UoS and contributes to the body of knowledge within organizational contexts. Much of the UoS literature focuses on helping-type professions and specifically in the therapy and Organization Development & Change (OD&C) fields. However, little empirical research has been conducted on UoS and there is no known research on how professionals outside of these helping disciplines in organizations use UoS in the workplace. Addressing this limitation is important because it unnecessarily restricts the construct. UoS is an unfamiliar concept to people in the general population. Results of this research could have many possibilities to help people not only understand UoS but assess themselves using the UoS Survey Instrument to help be their best self in their workplace.