The 1903 Alien Immigration Act, more commonly known as the Anti-Anarchist Act, was the first United States immigration policy to exclude persons based on political ideology. The following research explores the evolution of anti-anarchist sentiment in the US, following one of the nation’s first experiences with anarchist behavior: The Chicago Haymarket Affair of 1886, an incident in which a pipe bomb thrown in midst of a labor riot ultimately led to the arrest and highly publicized prosecution of eight anarchists. After the Haymarket Affair, both the United States government and the public defined anarchism as being the domain of alien barbarity and incendiary rhetoric, rather than as an authentic and unique political philosophy. This definition allowed for the eventual inclusion of anti-anarchist policy into the later Immigration Act of 1903.
Rebecca J. Mancuso
First Advisor Department
Marc V. Simon
Second Advisor Department
Harrington, Kaysie, "Haymarket & Immigration: A Legacy of Anarchist Fear" (2016). Honors Projects. 282.