School of Human Movement, Sport, and Leisure Studies Faculty Publications

Document Type



Healthcare is a dynamic and challenging work environment with high levels of ambiguity and volatility. Leadership behaviors and models are needed that present a new framework for leadership behaviors in this type of environment. Contextual intelligence (CI) has been suggested as a useful and viable solution to leading in turbulent environments. This investigation explored the frequency of CI behaviors of female healthcare managers from 13 different hospitals. 474 females healthcare managers’ demographic data, including Myers–Briggs Type Indicator confirmed personality preference, were administered the Contextual Intelligence Profile (CIP), which rates the frequency 12 CI behaviors are demonstrated (0 = never to 6 = always). Internal consistency of the CIP was α = .92 and Exploratory Factor Analysis organized the behaviors into three factors (Hindsight, Insight, and Foresight). Three CI behaviors are practiced with very high frequency. Female healthcare managers with a preference for Extroversion (E) demonstrated eight CI behaviors (67%) more often than their counterparts with a preference for Introversion (I); and those with a preference for Intuition (N) demonstrated seven CI behaviors (58%) more often than their counterparts with a preference for Sensing (S). Our findings indicate that female healthcare managers practice CI with some frequency; and certain personality preferences (E/N), education level, and minority status may contribute to greater practice frequency of CI behaviors. However, certain behaviors, primarily those from Insight, were practiced with much lower frequency. Therefore, leadership development programing might want to consider including CI behaviors to enhance overall CI for leaders and managers in turbulent environments.

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Publication Title

International Journal of Healthcare Management


Taylor & Francis