Master of Education in Applied Human Development Graduate Projects


Volleyball participation has increased over the years; therefore, injury rates have also increased (Agel, Palmieri-Smith, Dick, Wojtys, & Marshall, 2007). An accurate pre-participation screening tool would be important to help reduce the risk of injury. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use the Functional Movement Screen® (FMS®) and Y-Balance Test (YBT) to predict injury risk of Division III volleyball players during the competitive season. The FMS® and YBT identify functional movement limitations and imbalances that might predispose an athlete to injury (Bonazza, Onks, Silvis, & Dhawan, 2016; Cook, 2010; Cook, 2012; Lehr et al., 2013). Method: Twenty-two female volleyball players (Mean ± S.D. Age: 19.5 ± 0.9 years) were recruited for this study. Quantitative data were collected from each athlete prior to the beginning of the competitive season and included administration of the FMS® and the YBT. Throughout the season, any injuries reported were recorded by the certified athletic trainer at the time of the injury. A one-way, between measures ANOVA was calculated to determine the significant differences between the injured (n = 10) and non-injured (n = 12) groups and their FMS® and YBT scores. To evaluate a composite score threshold for the development of injury, 2 x 2 contingency tables were created. These tables were also used to determine sensitivity, specificity, 1-specificity, and odds ratio for injury using each composite score, 13 through 18. Results: There were no significant differences between FMS® scores of those players injured and not injured (Mean ± S.D.: 15.5 ± 1.4 and 15.7 ± 2.5, respectively; p = .85). A score of 15 maximized both sensitivity (0.40) and 1 – specificity (0.17). Odds ratio indicated that individuals who had a composite threshold of ≤ 15 had 3.33 greater odds of becoming injured. There were no significant differences between the injured group and the uninjured group when comparing dominant and non-dominant YBT composite scores (p = .339, p = .326, respectively) or reach differences in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions (p = .384, p = .333, p = .463, respectively). Athletes with an FMS® composite score of ≤ 15 in this small sample had a higher risk of becoming injured than those with scores > 15.


Dr. Lynn A. Darby

Second Reader

Dr. Todd Keylock