The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among goal orientation, self-handicapping, enjoyment, and anxiety in high school varsity girls’ basketball athletes. Female high school basketball athletes (N = 5; ages 15-17) from a Midwestern public high school completed questionnaires at one time point that included a demographics questionnaire, the 2 × 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport (AGQ-S), Sport Enjoyment Scale (SES), Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2), Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory-Short (PFAI-S), and Self-Handicapping Scale (SHS). Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationships between goal orientation, self-handicapping, enjoyment, anxiety, and fear of failure. Results of Pearson correlation coefficients found that anxiety and self-handicapping were positively correlated with fear of failure (r = .837 and r = .843, respectively). Enjoyment was positively correlated with performance-avoidance goal orientation (r = .887). The results of this study suggest that athletes with high levels of fear of failure may have more anxiety and engage in self-handicapping strategies. The results of this study also suggest that performance-avoidance goal orientation produces higher levels of enjoyment. Overall, this study provided evidence that there are significant relationships among the variables of goal orientation, self-handicapping, enjoyment, and anxiety in female high school basketball athletes.
Dr. David A. Tobar
Dr. Nancy E. Spencer
Moorer, BreAysia, "Examining the Role of Goal Orientations and Self-Handicapping Behavior on Enjoyment and Anxiety in High School Basketball Athletes" (2020). Masters of Education in Human Movement, Sport, and Leisure Studies Graduate Projects. 82.