Masters of Education in Human Movement, Sport, and Leisure Studies Graduate Projects


The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel coincidence anticipation timing (CAT) software tool by leveraging the testing protocol employed by Brady (1996). Eighteen test participants (8 men, 10 women) were recruited from a Division I Mid-Western State University. Participants comprised two groups, open skills athletes (n=9) and non-athletes (n=9). The CAT task delivered by the software tool involved a small green dot that traveled across a computer monitor at one of four different speeds (0.46 mph, 0.69 mph, 0.92 mph, and 1.15 mph). On the right side of the screen was a small, white target dot. Participants were instructed to depress the spacebar the instant that the green dot reached the white target dot. Absolute error (ms), constant error (ms), and variable error (ms) were measured and compared within and between the test groups corresponding with both athletic experience and sex. Error measurements were analyzed using a 3-way factorial MANOVA design. Similar to Brady (1996), results showed open skills athletes performed with less absolute error than non-athletes. On average, women were least accurate at 0.92 mph compared to all other speeds. In accordance with Brady (1996), open skills athletes performed with less response bias (as evidenced by constant error) compared to that of non-athletes. A significant main effect was observed for the influence of speed on variable error, however subsequent post-hoc analyses did not demonstrate significance for any specific comparison. Participants were most variable at the 0.92 speed, and least variable at the 0.46 speed. In conclusion, the newly developed CAT software tool elicited performance outcomes comparable to those observed by Brady (1996). Future assessments should include an evaluation of the repeatability of the CAT software utility. Ultimately, the software-based CAT test may offer a more cost-effective and flexible assessment tool than traditional Bassin Timer devices.


Adam Fullenkamp

Second Reader

Matthew Laurent