A new approach to sensing of aqueous phosphate-related anions based on chromogenic conductive polymers is demonstrated. This method utilizes synergy between low-level p-doping in a polythiophene polymer and hydrogen bonding to increase anion-sensor affinity. These chromogenic conductive polymers show anion-specific changes both in color and in conductivity upon increasing concentration of anions, thus providing two independent modes of signal transduction.
Aldakov, Dmitry and Anzenbacher, Pavel Jr., "Sensing Of Aqueous Phosphates By Polymers With Dual Modes Of Signal Transduction" (2004). Chemistry Faculty Publications. 90.
Journal Of The American Chemical Society