Electrooptical sensors consisting of a conjugated chromophore undergoing a change in color and a redox-active moiety such as quinone fused to the chromophore were synthesized. Strong changes in colorimetric and electrochemical properties were observed in the presence of inorganic anions. A unique anion-specific response was observed for fluoride, pyrophosphate, and acetate. DFT (B3LYP/6-31G*) calculations performed for both "on/off" states of a sensor-fluoride model are in good agreement with the observed electrochemical and spectroscopic data.
Anzenbacher, Pavel Jr.; Jursikova, Karolina; and Marquez, Manuel, "Simple Electrooptical Sensors For Inorganic Anions" (2005). Chemistry Faculty Publications. 87.