One of the least explored aspects of the needs assessment process is the concept of equivalency value in the substitution of products and services. Most needs assessments are based upon wants and desires, not upon an understanding of what activities can be substituted to bring about the desired outcome in the bargaining or programming process. A case study was undertaken to illustrate the importance of substitution values in the process of program development. Results suggest that activities can be segregated on an orthogonal basis to give program administrators the substitution value of activities to improve their program management technique. This type of information helps to establish an order or sequence to the activity for the development of better organizational skills. It also helps them better identify target audiences in relation to production of individualized programs.
Groves, David L.
"Identification of Outcomes/A Classification System,"
Visions in Leisure and Business: Vol. 2
, Article 4.
Available at: https://scholarworks.bgsu.edu/visions/vol2/iss2/4