Psychology Ph.D. Dissertations


Relationships of Organizational Justice and Organizational Constraints With Performance: A Meta-Analysis

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)



First Advisor

Steve Jex (Advisor)

Second Advisor

Michael Zickar (Committee Member)

Third Advisor

Mary Hare (Committee Member)

Fourth Advisor

Gregory Rich (Committee Member)


The purpose of the current study was to meta-analytically examine the relationships of organizational justice and organizational constraints with three performance criteria: task performance, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). A meta-analysis of 106 studies (n = 35699) revealed that task performance and OCB were positively related to all forms of organizational justice, but only task performance was negatively related to organizational constraints. On the other hand, CWB was negatively related to all forms of organizational justice and positively related to organizational constraints. Furthermore, different dimensions of organizational justice had differential relationships with performance criteria. Procedural and interactional justice had a weaker positive association with task performance compared to OCB. Procedural justice had a stronger positive relationship with OCB-O than OCB-I. With regard to the differential relationship between organizational constraints and performance, organizational constraints had a stronger negative relationship with task performance than OCB. Another significant finding was that negative emotions fully mediated the relationship between organizational constraints and CWB. The relationship between organizational justice with self-rated versus other-rated OCB was not significantly stronger for self-rated versus other rated OCB. Lastly, an unexpected finding was that organizational constraints had a stronger relationship with self-rated CWB than other-rated CWB. The study’s implications for research and practice are discussed, and directions for future research are provided.