Leadership Studies Ed.D. Dissertations


Examination of the Change in Science Content Knowledge, Personal Science Teacher Efficacy, and Science Teaching Outcome Expectancy Due to Participation in Modeling Instruction Professional Development

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


Leadership Studies

First Advisor

Judith Jackson May (Advisor)

Second Advisor

Starr Keyes (Other)

Third Advisor

Tracy Huziak-Clark (Committee Member)

Fourth Advisor

Colleen Megowan-Romanowicz (Committee Member)

Fifth Advisor

Rachel Vannatta (Committee Member)


Highly effective teachers have a positive impact on their students and their performance. Therefore, in-service teachers must continue to grow and develop their craft (Marzano, 2003). Research has shown factors influencing teacher effectiveness include their content knowledge, their self-efficacy, and their outcome expectancy (Bandura, 1977; Ohle, Boone, & Fischer, 2014; Sargent, Ferrell, Smith, & Scroggins, 2018; Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001). Teachers who spend almost all of their class time teaching content and not working on improving student understanding have lower self-efficacy and outcome expectancy and struggle to improve their student’s academic success (Petty, 2009). According to research, professional development should focus on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) to have a more significant impact on student achievement (Kleickmann, Richter, Kunter, Elsner, Besser, Krauss, & Baumert, 2013; Shulman, 1986). Modeling Instruction is a type of professional development focused on the improvement of science teaching pedagogy. There is significant research on the impact of Modeling Instruction (MI) on students. However, little research on the effects of MI on teachers exists (Brewe, 2008). The purpose of this research was to examine how Modeling Instruction professional development impacts teachers. Examining a t-test of dependent samples using a pretest-posttest design will help to determine if MI professional development for in-service science teachers in an appropriate means for improving teacher content knowledge, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy. The sample for this study included 567 participants in physical science Modeling Instruction professional development workshops from 21 different states in the United States. The researcher utilized a quasi-experimental research design utilizing surveys disseminated through voluntary participation in the Modeling Instruction professional development from 2016 to 2018 to ascertain the level of content knowledge (CK), personal science teaching efficacy (PSTE), and science teaching outcome expectancy (STOE) for each of the teachers both pre and post participation. Paired t-tests revealed that Modeling Instruction professional development has a positive impact on content knowledge, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy. Multiple regression analysis revealed several predictors for the dependent variables, with gender as a common thread throughout. This research also provides implications for leadership and teaching.