eSports are a new category of competitive games, where groups of players compete against others in competitive video games on personal computers and gaming consoles. These games can be individually based or team oriented. This project applies theoretical and empirical research in sports psychology to develop a psychological skills training manual for eSports athletes and coaches. In particular, tenets of Achievement Goal Theory and relevant research are reviewed and discussed. This manual focuses on the select psychological skill strategies of goal setting, imagery and positive self talk with an aim to minimize potential adverse affects, cognitions, and behaviors in eSport athletes. eSports athletes have been found to report symptoms depression, anxiety, and difficulties with socialization. An athlete trained in imagery and other cognitive techniques (e.g., negative thought stoppage) can reduce performance related anxiety typically associated with fear of failure. Also, appropriately short and long term goals that are focused primarily on learning and self referenced improvement (i.e., mastery approach) have the capability of improving self confidence and continued motivation. Thus, this manual, when successfully applied, will provide athletes with a selection of skills to enhance their functioning in achievement situations, and these more positive psychological states should be associated with an improvement in performance.


David Tobar

Second Reader

Amanda Paule-Koba








Sport Administration